Hệ thống và ôn tập cho môn Materials for Language Teaching học kỳ 6 ngữ văn Anh- VB2- XHNV HCM
Câu 1: Why should teachers evaluate?
As professional teachers, we should recognize the need to continually evaluate our approach to supporting students in their learning, so as to improve it. Even if we believe that we are providing an excellent learning environment for our students, we know that the nature of students is constantly changing, so what may be appropriate today may not be appropriate in a year’s time.. Evaluation is the process of identifying the difference between the desired and achieved outcomes and of determining what changes might usefully improve the outcome.
Evaluating helps teachers realize whether the course books are suitable to learners’ needs or not.
Câu 2: What is adaptation ?
= > Adaptation is the altering of materials to improve or make them more suitable for a particular type of learner or group of learners.
Câu 3: what is impressionistic overview? (Chapter1 – trang 1)
Impressionistic overview,which gives teachers a general introduction to the material,is one of the stages in evaluating coursebooks. Teachers can form a general impression of a coursebook fairy quickly, just by looking through it and getting an overview of its possobilities and its strengths and weaknesses, noting signifiant features which stand out. Through this stage, teachers can soon see what various features of the coursebook are like, such as the quality of the visuals, how attractive and clear the layout is, what the whole course package is made up of, how the items included in the coursebook are sequenced…
Câu 4: What is in-depth evaluation? (Chapter 1,page 1-2)
There are two approaches to evaluate a new material.
After doing impressionisticoverview which is the first approach, we make a shortist for more detailed analysis. For this we need in-depth evaluation.
In-depth evaluation is the second approach which is more penetrating in its approach and has its own agenda. In this approach, we need to examine how specific items are dealt with, particularly those which relate to students’ learning needs, syllabus requirements, how different aspects of language are dealt with,ect. Many of us will have our individual checklist of things that we look at a new coursebook. We can look at the balance of activities and skills contained in a unit, the potential for learner participation, the amount of new language introduced, the amount of recycling,ect.
Câu 5. What is the role of the teacher in Model X (p.247 + 248/photo chap 10)
Model X shows how the teaching contexts and the learners’ needs provide a framework for the objectives and then, the decisions concerning the best methods and materials should be made accordingly.
Firstly, the teachers draw up a very general framework of a particular class and learners to define the characteristics of the learners in terms of the learners’ preference for a course and the levels of their proficiency based on the tests administered at the beginning of the course. The goal of teaching is usually represented in the name of the course.
Secondly, the teachers select from the commercially available coursebook the one suitable for the class defined in the initial stage.
In fact, producers (materials writers) provide prospective selectors (teachers and administrators) with information as to the target learners, objectives and methodology. Teachers only do 2 stages was showed above.
- Theo quy trình của Model X, gồm 5 bước, thìgiáoviênchỉthống kêlại thông tin cần thiết rồi làmbước 4 thôi (select materials) – chọn giáo trình phù hợp với level và learners’ needs, còn lại các bước needs analysis, objectives, syllabus, select methodology là trong materials có hết (tứclà producer làm hết rồi)
Câu 6. What is the teacher role in model Y? page 248-249/photo chapter 10.
- The materials writer and the publisher who produced the materials have more direct control of the course design processes than the teachers,à teachers are less able to oversee these processes than before.
- The degree of dominance depends on how much and how closely the teachers choose to follow the coursebook or how much teachers take initiative in making flexible use of the materials.
- The reversal phenomenon and the role divisions may be even described to be sensible and realistic procedures provided teachers’ needs and wants are reflected in materials, and that teachers have the overall controlon the teaching.
Câu 7. What is the course book package? (page 25)
- Most course packages consist of at least a student’s book and teacher’s book. The student’s book is probably thought of as the main plank of package, and rightly so as it is the main point of contact with the student. However, teacher’s books are also very important and are responsible for providing teachers with the detailed information that they need in order to make the best use of the whole course.
- Workbooks or activities are also commonly included in course packages and are intende to give students extra practice in items already introduced in class.
- Carrsettes normally figure prominently in course packages, and are generally used for listening and pronunciation work.
Câu 8: what is the important book in the coursebook package?
The student’s book and teacher’s book
Câu 9: What are the 2 approach of coursebook evaluation?
- Evaluation for potential without any predetermined use in mind to equip students with criteria for more specific evaluation at a later date
- Evaluation for suitability involves matching the coursebook against a specific requirement such as the leaner’s objectives, the learner’s background…
Câu 10: What is the coursebook?
- The coursebooks are the best seen as resource in achieving aims and objectives that have already been set in terms of learner’s need.
Câu 11: What is principle of recycling?
- The principle of recycling is that items are encountered in a structured way on several occasion in different contexts. In this way, students learn the form and the sound of a language item through progressive exposure, and by meeting it in a number of different contexts they develop a increasing understanding of its use and meaning.
Câu 12: Why should the teacher bring a check-list in in-depth evaluation?
Câu 13:What are the basis indicator of the in-depth evaluation (Chapter 1-Page 2)
- Examine how specific items are dealt with coursebooks which relate to student’s learning needs, syllabus requirement, how different aspects of language are dealt with, etc. How the book deals with these items will give us a good indication of how suitable it will be. Some question in context next to be consider:
- How does the coursebook present, the present perfect with particular reference to its meaning and us
- How does it teach the use of articles.
- Does it include anything on intonation?
- Does it deal with the organization of language above the level of the sentence, e.g in conversation or in continuous writing
- It is also useful to pick out one of two units of a coursebook and analyse them in details, trying to choose units which look as though they are typical of the material as a whole
- In this unit, you look at the balance of activities and skills contained in it.
Câu 14: The component of investigating how a coursebook is get together?
Câu 15: What is the principle of reinforcement?
Câu 16. What is the role of the coursebook? (page 7)
Course books are best seen as a recourse in achieving aims and objectives that have already been set in terms of learner needs. Coursebooks have multiple roles in ELT and can serve as:
- A resource for presentation material (spoken and written).
- A source of activities for learner practice and communicative interaction.
- A reference source for learners on grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, etc.
- A source of stimulation and ideas for classroom language activities.
- A syllabus (where they reflect learning objectives which have already been determined).
- A resource for self-directed learning or self-access work.
- A support for less experienced teachers who have yet to gain in confidence.
Câu 17: What is the first component of investigating how a coursebook is get together?
Câu 18: What is the forth component of investigating how a coursebook is get together?
Câu 19: Who are the material users?
Material users are teachers, educational administrators and publishers.
Câu 20: Who are the material producers?
Material producers are professional materials writers and publishers.
Câu 21:What is the organization of the course book?
Câu 22:What is needs analysis?
Needs analysis includes all the activities used to collect information about your students’ learning needs (personal needs, leaning needs and future professional needs), wants, wishes, desires, etc… The process also sometimes involves looking at the expectations and requirements of other interested parties such as the teachers’ needs (personal needs, professional needs), administrators, financial supporters, and other people who may be impacted by the program (such as students’ family members or employers). A needs analysis can be very formal, extensive and time consuming, or it can be informal, narrowly focused and quick. Some of resources for conducting a needs analysis may include surveys and questionnaires, test scores, and interviews.
Câu 23:What is the model X course design?
Model X course design recommended by Johnson 1989 Dubin and Olshtain 1986; Richards 1990 suggest that materials design or selection should come at a later stage of the process. The sequence of course design recommended by experts may be summarized as the linear Model X as below:
Model X- Course design procedures:
This model X shows how the teaching context and the learner needs provide a framework for the objective and then the decisions concerning the best methods and materials are made accordingly.
Câu 24:What is the model Y course design?
Model Y is a syllabus map indicating how units are integrated into a coherent course. This sequence of course design introduced above may be summarized as Model Y as below:
Model Y becomes apparent how crucial stages of the course design have been removed from the hands of the teachers and administrators to those of materials procedures.
Model Y- Course design procedures in practice
Câu 25:What is in-use production?
Refer to course book evaluation whilst the material is in use, for example when a newly introduced coursebook is being monitored or when a well-established but ageing coursebook is being assessed to see whether it should be considered for replacement.
Câu 26: What is pre-use evaluation?
Pre-use evaluation which can be done prior to the use of a coursebook (for the purpose of checking the construct validity and the match with the needs).
Câu 27: What is the post-use evaluation?
Provides retrospective assessment of a coursebook’s performance and can be useful for identifying strengths and weaknesses which emerge a period of continuous use. Evaluation of this kind can be useful in helping to decide whether to use the same coursebook on future occasions, particularly in respect of short self-contained courses which are repeated from time to time.
Câu 28: What are the advantages of using the coursebook?
- A possible lack of variety in teaching procedures
- A reduced range of response in individual student needs and problems
- A possible lack of spontaneity
- A sharply reduced level of creativity in teaching technique and language use
Câu 29: What are the disadvantages of using the coursebook?
- There is a common framework provided by the coursebook
- Less experienced teachers can use the cousebook as heavily as they need to
- There scope for replacing weaker parts of the standard coursebook with other books or using own material
- There is scope for teacher to develop as they become less dependent on the book and gain in confidence to experiment with alternative materials
- More variety of classroom activity and teaching technique is possible
- A more flexible response to individual students’ needs is possible.